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Abhishek Pathak
Abhishek Pathak

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Networking Hardware - Summary

Hello everyone, I hope you are having a good day.

In this blog, we are going to cover different types of Network Hardware Devices.

The basic imp devices are written pointwise, and only imp points are written, which helps in understanding the device in simple terms.


  • Hubs are layer 1 devices (physical layer).
  • Data is flooded, meaning it sends data to every connected computer, whether they require it or not.
  • A central hub is often used in a ring LAN, transferring data to every connected computer.


  • Switches are like intelligent hubs.
  • They only send data to the required devices.
  • Switches have memory elements.
  • They operate at the layer 2 level.


  • Repeaters are commonly used in wireless and wired communication.
  • They regenerate signals at the same frequency, preventing signal degradation.


  • A modem converts digital data into analog form so it can travel through telephone lines.

NIC (Network Interface Card)

  • NICs are connected to PCs.
  • They provide PCs with a MAC address, which cannot be changed.
  • The MAC address is a hardware or physical address.
  • MAC addresses are required to transfer data from one node to another.


  • Bridges are layer 2 devices.
  • They have RAM memory elements that store MAC addresses from both sides of the network.


  • Routers are network layer devices.
  • They operate at OSI model level 3.
  • Routers connect different networks.
  • They have LAN ports for internal network connections.
  • They also have WAN ports for connecting internet devices to external networks.

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